Home / English Lessons / -ed ending: [t], [d] or [Id] | Slow Practice | English Pronunciation Lesson

-ed ending: [t], [d] or [Id] | Slow Practice | English Pronunciation Lesson

Listen to the audio:

…or watch the video!:

This lesson is part of the series on the -ed ending:

  1. A Quick Overview: -ed ending: [t], [d] or [Id]? | A Quick Overview | English
  2. In Depth[t], [d] or [Id]? | “-ed” Past Tense | English Pronunciation Lesson

As previous lessons have already discussed, the -ed ending in English has three sounds:

  • [t]
  • [d]
  • [Id]

This change in sound results from whether or not the vocal chords vibrate to create the sound right before the -ed ending.


When we say:

  • “kissed” [kɪst]

because there is no vibration in the vocal chords (“voiceless”) when saying the [s] consonant sound, it’s simply efficient for your vocal chords to continue to not vibrate and pronounce the -ed ending as a voiceless [t].

  • “kissed”

Similarly, when we say:

  • “buzzed” [bʌzd]

because the vocal chords vibrate (“voiced”) when we say the [z] consonant sound, the -ed ending will naturally continue to vibrate and sound like a [d].

  • “buzzed”

When there is a [t] or a [d] before the -ed ending, that -ed ending will be pronounced as an [Id].

Got it?

Let’s practice saying the past tense of verbs nice and slowly so that you can hear and master the three -ed ending sounds.

Listen and Repeat


  • [k] “walked” [wɑkt]
  • [p] “helped” [hɛlpt]
  • [tʃ] “reached” [riytʃt] (pull your lips back for the [iy] vowel sound)



  • [t] “wanted”
  • [d] “needed”
  • [d] “included”

Remember, it’s important to pronounce the last sound in words, including the plural “s” and the 3rd person “s” sounds, because when you connect your speech in English, that last sound in the word should be heard nice and clearly at the beginning of the word that follows.

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